A hydraulic pump is a machine capable of transforming mechanical force into hydraulic power. It is used generally in hydraulic drive systems. Depending on the nature of the work, different kinds of hydraulic pumps can be found on the market such as: gear pumps, screw pumps, rotary vane pumps, bent axis pumps, axial piston pumps, radial piston pumps, peristatic hydraulic pump and many more. The most commonly used hydraulic pumps are the gear pumps, the rotary vane pumps and the piston pumps. They are all classified as positive displacement pumps. The term ‘positive displacement pump’ means that these pumps transfer certain amount of hydraulic fluid into a hydraulic system. This hydraulic fluid travels to every component of the pump and the pressure of the fluid is converted into mechanical force.
The design of each hydraulic pump is different. For example, the piston pumps can be axial, radial, in line or axial- bent piston pumps. On the other hand, rotary vane pumps can be either sliding or cam vane pumps. Every hydraulic pump is tailored and designed to be used for specific application. Regardless of the design, hydraulic pumps are used in combination with certain fluids that have viscosity. The changes in the fluid viscosity affect the performance and the efficiency of the hydraulic pump. Every hydraulic pump can be damaged if there are solid particles in the fluid. A filtration system therefore required.
Hydraulic pump is used in various manufacturing, construction and heavy machinery equipment. Because it is responsible for the performance and the efficiency of different machines, even the smallest defects inside the hydraulic pump can cause serious breakdowns to the entire machine. Various materials are used to minimize the wear and improve performance of hydraulic pump. What types of material are going to be used, depends greatly on the temperature and the pressure that will be generated. Steel alloys, rubber and different durable plastic materials can be used in the design of a hydraulic pump. Titanium alloys and polymers are generally used for high pressure hydraulic pumps.
The key elements that need to be considered when selecting a hydraulic pump are the temperature level, the operating pressure and the frequency. Cheep and low pressure hydraulic pumps are more affordable option for applications that require lower pressure levels. However, these pumps are not ideal for heavy industrial applications.